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Sallah , Sawal Hamid Md. Ali , P. Susthitha Menon , Nurjuliana Juhari and Md. Shabiul Islam. Abstract: Background: Silicon based photonics has created strong interested in recent years, mainly in optical waveguide interconnects for microelectronic circuits. To compare the performance between several waveguide materials with copper interconnect, the optical waveguide was designed and evaluated in OptiBPM to be in a single mode condition. A propagation delay performance for the whole circuit and for the interconnection only was measured using different material of interconnect.

Results: The results showed that the OI minimized the propagation delay in the two-stage CMOS buffer circuit, as well as increased the speed of the integrated circuit. Conclusion: The proposed SOI-based optical waveguide in OI link are able to replace copper based electrical interconnection in electronic circuit technology. How to cite this article: Siti Sarah Binti Md.

Silicon photonics brings optical communications into the fabrication space of the semiconductor industry, enabling low-cost, high-volume assembly. The opto-electronic functions are fabricated on the same CMOS wafers using the same equipment and methods as electronic chips. The wafers are process in the same fabs as those running electronics chips. The wafers are diced into chips just like electrical ones.

Optical chips can be just as inexpensive as their electrical cousins. When mass volumes are needed, the wafer fab simply runs more wafers of the same recipe. In other words, scaling to mass production is easy. The following figure illustrates wafer fabrication of silicon photonics optical engine. Not only does silicon photonics eliminate the need for hand assembly of s of piece parts, silicon photonics chips are much, much smaller than the optical subassemblies they replace.

Silicon photonics can support Gigabits per second transmission on chips less than half the size of a postage stamp. Previously, optical solutions assembled from discrete components had to be packaged in expensive, hermetically sealed packages. A speck of dust between any of the components would inhibit the light path and render the product useless. By contrast, silicon photonics devices are totally self-contained within the layers of the chip. We discuss recent advances in polymer optical interconnect that enables the interconnection of individual silicon PICs through both high tolerance tapers and polymer waveguides with tailored loss and index contract.

Results for both silicon and silicon nitride PICs will be discussed. Additive nanofabrication by two-photon polymerization allows equipping single-mode photonic integrated circuits with micro-optical components for efficient coupling. In this talk, we give an overview of our recent process in building integrated optical systems with in-situ printed optical micro-lenses and mirrors as well as with photonic wirebonds PWB. The approach features low coupling losses by precise mode matching of optical components with widely different mode-profiles.

Electronic-Photonic Co-Design of Silicon Photonic Interconnects | EECS at UC Berkeley

Moreover, the alignment tolerances can be relaxed by expanding the off-chip beam profiles, thus allowing for passive assembly of single-mode optical systems. Micro-mirrors give additional design freedom and allows combining vertically and horizontally emitting components into compact assemblies. We show coupling losses down to 0. Also coupling with micro-mirrors is demonstrated. The photonic wire bonding approach enables flexible assembly of systems from known-good devices with small footprint in fully automated fabrication processes.

The technique, in which pre-aligned chips are connected with 3D-printed freeform waveguides, lends itself to both rapid prototyping as well as large-scale production.

Silicon photonic based optical interconnects for advanced high-performance computing

We demonstrate chip-to-chip, fiber-to-chip, and laser-to-chip connections as well as insertion losses down to 0. Polymer hot embossing is a very active and highly appealing research topic. It addresses a wide range of applications, including micro systems, nano electronics, and optoelectronics. Polymers offer many advantages for micro and nano devices, including low material cost, inexpensive fabrication, excellent relevant material properties, ease of manufacturing, and suitability for forming in a variety of geometries. Polymer nanofabrication techniques in particular may benefit and advance many microsystems such as polymer optical interconnects.

Use Photonics To Overcome The High-Speed Electronic Interconnect Bottleneck

This presents various polymer microstructures for possible optical interconnects. A numerical study on the design and loss mechanisms of a Polymer-to-Silicon adiabatic coupling interface is demonstrated. The silicon taper design is based on the coupling strength maximization as well as the calculation of a Constant Loss Taper CLT.

Flexibly Scalable High Performance Architectures with Embedded Photonics

The maximum calculated coupler efficiency value achieved is The spectral behavior of the proposed coupler is investigated, while a fabrication and assembly tolerance study is conducted. Upcoming Internet of Things, Industry 4. For this upcoming device communication new coupling approaches are needed to achieve optical bus systems, where several modules can be connected to a single bus without interrupting the waveguides. A novel coupling approach with specific coupling ratios depending on the coupling direction optical bus to electro-optical device and vice versa is presented.

In this paper we investigate the influence of the waveguide manufacturing technology on the coupling performance.

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The standard photolithographic waveguides with rectangular cross-sections are compared to Aerosol Jet printed waveguides with circular segment cross-sections. Furthermore, we monitored the coupling for several days to get results on the stability. Session 6: Nanophotonics for Optical Interconnects.

Free-space coupled membrane photonic devices are highly desirable for 3D optical interconnects, free space communications, imaging, sensing, and ranging applications.

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Based on transfer printing processes, heterogeneously integrated active photonic crystal devices can be built on the common silicon platform. In this talk, I will report recent progresses related to hybrid integrated photonic crystal surface-emitting membrane lasers on silicon substrate, based on buried tunnel junction InGaAsP QW gain material and transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

Issues to be discussed related to thermal performance, charge injection, and scaling towards energy efficient optical interconnects. We present the transverse-coupled-cavity VCSELs for increasing the modulation bandwidth and the monolithic lateral modulator integration. The modeling and prospects toward the bandwidth beyond GHz will also be presented. In addition, we demonstrated the lateral integration of an ultra-compact electro-absorption modulator with VCSEL.

We obtained a sub-volt low driving voltage, and the bandwidth beyond 30 GHz. We will also discuss on the multi-level modulation format, wavelength division multiplexing and space division multiplexing toward Gbps or higher per fiber. Investigating the propagation of a pulse-modulated carrier SPP wave when the metal is either abruptly terminated or bent, we have found that SPP-wave-based interconnects can be effective conduits of information.

Sorger, The George Washington Univ. United States ; Ray T. Unlike conventional photonic platforms where the waveguides in a photonic integrated circuit PIC are built parallel to the substrate hence requiring multiple lithographic steps, our approach requires only one single lithography process to build the phase array. This improves not only performance but also yield. This allows minimizing the pixel emitter to pixel separation and thus enables high field of view FOV in access of potentially 80 degrees. This device concept can be used for novel space LiDAR technologies that use high-efficiency semiconductor lasers to measure range and surface reflectance of asteroids and comets.

Psaila, Optoscribe Ltd.


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The persistent drive for increased bandwidth while simultaneously reducing cost in short range optical communications systems is placing substantial pressure on component manufacturers to increase the level of integration and adopt lower cost assembly processes. Moving to well established processes used widely in the electronics industry such as wafer scale test and assembly, and high speed vision-based alignment is a key step to satisfying this demand.

Ultrafast lasers offer a unique tool for the integration of photonic components. This paper shows how they can be used for manufacturing glass-based interconnect components, which are applied to both fiber-fiber and fiber-transceiver applications. The paper shows how these components can be used as optical interfaces or further combined with conventional lithographic processes to help solve challenges in the packaging of photonic components. In addition to this, the paper will also show how these components can be used as an integration platform for optical sub-assemblies and photonic-electronic interposers.

Densly packed multi-channel fiber arrays have manifold applications in the field of photonic integrated circuits, telecom and many more. The assembly of the fiberoptical connectors is highly challenging. At Fraunhofer IPT an automated assembly machine for PM-fiber connectors with a micon pitch has been successfully implemented and installed in industry.

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With the patent-pending fiber manipulator and a computer vision-based stressrod inspection system an efficient manufacturing of fiber arrays is possible. The process can be transferred to direct fiber-chip coupling and related applications. We propose a stacked glass block technology in combination with a sub-micron alignment approach for the development of robust fiber connectors for lateral coupling. This technology offers a high degree of freedom during the assembly of glass parts, compensating undesired misalignments related to the shrinkage of the adhesive.

Moreover, adhesive-based issues are minimized by stacking the glass parts with almost zero gap. Using an automated laser cutting system, small glass parts from glass panels are cut with high reproducibility and acceptable cut quality. Two different chips for photonic modules of specific output power level with a laser excitation wavelength at nm are addressed. Watson Research Ctr.


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Single-mode integrated photonics presents a challenge because of the tight alignment required for precise optical interconnection. We have recently developed fiber array photonics assembly that is compatible with standard high-throughput microelectronics tools for scalability and cost-efficiency improvement of photonic packaging. The path followed to increase assembly throughput is described as well as how the photonic subassembly could be made compatible with higher downstream microelectronic process temperatures, such as lead-free solder reflows for true co-integration of pretested optical engines next to the high speed electronic chips.

Session PWed: Posters-Wednesday. Come view the posters, enjoy light refreshments, ask questions, and network with colleagues in your field. United States ; Volker J. Single mode with in-phase operation of the laser arrays is one of the main challenges for engineers to achieve high power in phase far field emission. Recently single mode lasing based on non-Hermitian engineering of the laser is investigated and two scenarios based on parity time PT symmetry and super symmetry are presented.

Here we present a new method based on Q-enhancing to achieve single mode operation. The output supports up-to Watts for few integrated coupled cavity lasers. In a three-level system, actively detuning coupling strength between the respective waveguide modes via electrically gating the graphene double-layer allows ultra-fast switching of light propagating through the outer waveguides.