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Editors: Edward Carpenter Douglas Capone.

Reactive Nitrogen in the Marine Atmosphere

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Nitrogen pollution disrupts Pacific Ocean : Nature News

View Section, Front Matter. View Section, Preface to Second Edition. View Section, Table of Contents. View Section, 1. View Section, 2. View Section, 3. View Section, 4. Nitrogen Fixation in the Marine Environment. View Section, 5. Nitrification in Marine Systems. View Section, 6. Denitrification Including Anammox. View Section, 7. Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation. View Section, 8. Nitrogen Regeneration. View Section, 9.

View Section, Phototransformations of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen. Nitrogen and Marine Eutrophication. Nitrogen Uptake in the Southern Ocean. Nitrogen in the Atlantic Ocean. The Indian Ocean.

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Atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid also damage respiratory systems. The very high temperature of lightning naturally produces small amounts of NO x , NH 3 , and HNO 3 , but high-temperature combustion has contributed to a 6- or 7-fold increase in the flux of NO x to the atmosphere. Its production is a function of combustion temperature - the higher the temperature, the more NO x is produced.

Fossil fuel combustion is a primary contributor, but so are biofuels and even the burning of hydrogen. However, the rate that hydrogen is directly injected into the combustion chambers of internal combustion engines can be controlled to prevent the higher combustion temperatures that produce NO x. Ammonia and nitrous oxides actively alter atmospheric chemistry.

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They are precursors of tropospheric lower atmosphere ozone production, which contributes to smog and acid rain , damages plants and increases nitrogen inputs to ecosystems. Ecosystem processes can increase with nitrogen fertilization , but anthropogenic input can also result in nitrogen saturation, which weakens productivity and can damage the health of plants, animals, fish, and humans.

Decreases in biodiversity can also result if higher nitrogen availability increases nitrogen-demanding grasses, causing a degradation of nitrogen-poor, species-diverse heathlands. Increasing levels of nitrogen deposition are shown to have a number of negative effects on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Changes to plant species may also occur, as accumulation of nitrogen compounds increase its availability in a given ecosystem, eventually changing the species composition, plant diversity, and nitrogen cycling. Ammonia and ammonium - two reduced forms of nitrogen - can be detrimental over time due to an increased toxicity toward sensitive species of plants, [49] particularly those that are accustomed to using nitrate as their source of nitrogen, causing poor development of their roots and shoots.

Increased nitrogen deposition also leads to soil acidification, which increases base cation leaching in the soil and amounts of aluminum and other potentially toxic metals, along with decreasing the amount of nitrification occurring and increasing plant-derived litter. Due to the ongoing changes caused by high nitrogen deposition, an environment's susceptibility to ecological stress and disturbance - such as pests and pathogens - may increase, thus making it less resilient to situations that otherwise would have little impact to its long-term vitality.

Additional risks posed by increased availability of inorganic nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems include water acidification; eutrophication of fresh and saltwater systems; and toxicity issues for animals, including humans. Relatively sessile benthos, or bottom-dwelling creatures, are particularly vulnerable because of their lack of mobility, though large fish kills are not uncommon. Oceanic dead zones near the mouth of the Mississippi in the Gulf of Mexico are a well-known example of algal bloom -induced hypoxia.

Ammonia NH 3 is highly toxic to fish and the level of ammonia discharged from wastewater treatment facilities must be closely monitored.

To prevent fish deaths, nitrification via aeration prior to discharge is often desirable. Land application can be an attractive alternative to the aeration. Leakage of Nr reactive nitrogen from human activities can cause nitrate accumulation in the natural water environment, which can create harmful impacts on human health. Excessive use of N-fertilizer in agriculture has been one of the major sources of nitrate pollution in groundwater and surface water. Some other non-point sources for nitrate pollution in groundwater are originated from livestock feeding, animal and human contamination and municipal and industrial waste.

Since groundwater often serves as the primary domestic water supply, nitrate pollution can be extended from groundwater to surface and drinking water in the process of potable water production, especially for small community water supplies, where poorly regulated and unsanitary waters are used. Human activities have also dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle via production of nitrogenous gases, associated with the global atmospheric nitrogen pollution.

There are multiple sources of atmospheric reactive nitrogen Nr fluxes. Agricultural sources of reactive nitrogen can produce atmospheric emission of ammonia NH 3 , nitrogen oxides NO x and nitrous oxide N 2 O. Combustion processes in energy production, transportation and industry can also result in the formation of new reactive nitrogen via the emission of NO x , an unintentional waste product. When those reactive nitrogens are released to the lower atmosphere, they can induce the formation of smog, particulate matter and aerosols, all of which are major contributors to adverse health effects on human health from air pollution.

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  5. Moreover, NH 3 can react with other acid gases sulfuric and hydrochloric acids to form ammonium-containing particles, which are the precursors for the secondary organic aerosol particles in photochemical smog. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Nitrogen fixation. Main articles: Assimilation biology and Nitrogen assimilation.

    Main article: Nitrification. Main article: Denitrification.

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    7. Main article: Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. Main article: Ammonia. Main article: Human impact on the nitrogen cycle. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Bibcode : Sci Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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      Timber Press. Nature Reviews Microbiology. Environmental Research Letters. Nitrogen Cycling in Bacteria: Molecular Analysis. Caister Academic Press.

      Nitrogen in the Marine Environment

      Richards, and W. Cycles of Life. Scientific American Library, New York. Prescott's Microbiology 8th Ed. New York, N. Issues in Ecology. Annual Review of Marine Science.