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Our Knowledge of the External World. Epistemology: Contemporary Readings.

Why is Time a One-Way Street?

Michael Huemer. The Essential Peirce, Volume 2. Peirce Edition Project. An Introduction to Psychology. Wilhelm Wundt. Robert Wicks. Keith Ward. The Fate of Place.


Edward Casey. Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel. Time and Free Will. A Brief History of the Soul. Stewart Goetz. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Michael Williams. The Creative Mind. Peirce on Signs. James Hoopes. The Nature and Future of Philosophy. Michael Dummett. The Philosophy of Logical Atomism. The Study of Man Routledge Revivals. Michael Polanyi. The Philosophy of Time. Roger McLure. Panpsychism in the West. David Skrbina. Rudolf Otto. The Philosophy of Spiritual Activity.

Rudolph Steiner. Anthony Savile. Consciousness and Mental Life. Daniel N. Language and Reality. Wilbur Marshall Urban. Professor Keith Ansell Pearson. A Companion to Rationalism. Alan Nelson. Metaphysics and Epistemology. Stephen Hetherington. Historical Dictionary of Metaphysics. Gary Rosenkrantz. Philosophy and Philosophers. John Shand. The Revolt Against Dualism. Arthur Lovejoy. Sense-Perception And Matter. Phillip Turetzky. Understanding Imagination. Dennis L Sepper. Introduction to C. Robert S. New Ways of Ontology. Fritz Plasser. The Elusiveness of the Ordinary.

Professor Stanley Rosen. Time as Dimension and History. Hubert Griggs Alexander. Human Nature. Carlo Cellucci. Jeremy Stangroom.

Leibniz's Final System. Glenn A. Phenomenological Psychology.

“Work according to Program and not according to mood. Stop at the appointed time!” — Henry Miller

John Scanlon. Introducing Aristotle. Rupert Woodfin. Michael K. The Cambridge Companion to Hume. David Fate Norton.

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Dermot Moran. However it is more acceptable to Kantian style metaphysicists who view their subject as a theory of psychology rather than reality, as it described what biological humans are likely to believe in practice. For example, if these were real ships on display to the public for a fee, it seems likely that the public would pay to see the reconstructed rather than restored ship. One common argument found in the philosophical literature is that in the case of Heraclitus' river one is tripped up by two different definitions of "the same", in other words the ambiguity of the term.

In one sense, things can be "qualitatively identical", by sharing some properties. In another sense, they might be "numerically identical" by being "one". As an example, consider two different marbles that look identical. They would be qualitatively, but not numerically, identical; a marble can be numerically identical only to itself. As the parts of the ship are replaced, the identity of the ship gradually changes, as the name "Theseus' Ship" is a truthful description only when the historical memory of Theseus' use of the ship - his physical contact with, and control of, its matter - is accurate.

For example, the museum curator, prior to any restoration, may say with perfect truthfulness that the bed in the captain's cabin is the same bed in which Theseus himself once slept; but once the bed has been replaced, this is no longer true, and the claim would then be an imposture, because a different description would be more accurate, i. This is true of every other piece of the original boat. As the parts are replaced, the new boat becomes exactly that: a new boat.

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Hobbes' proposed restored boat built from the original parts will be the original ship, as its parts are the actual pieces of matter that participated in Theseus' journeys. Ted Sider and others have proposed that considering objects to extend across time as four-dimensional causal series of three-dimensional "time-slices" could solve the ship of Theseus problem because, in taking such an approach, all four-dimensional objects remain numerically identical to themselves while allowing individual time-slices to differ from each other.

The aforementioned river, therefore, comprises different three-dimensional time-slices of itself while remaining numerically identical to itself across time; one can never step into the same river-time-slice twice, but one can step into the same four-dimensional river twice. Ships do not exist. A "ship" is a label for a particular organization of matter and energy in space and time. The old "ship" is just a concept in the human mind. Similarly, the new "ship" that has had all its parts replaced is another concept in the human mind.

Ship of Theseus - Wikipedia

If the two concepts were exactly the same, the human mind would not be capable of comparing them - there would be nothing to compare. Therefore, the old ship and the new ship must not be the same for the simple reason that humans are able to compare these two concepts against each other.

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According to Noam Chomsky , as described in Of Minds and Language , the paradox arises because of extreme externalism : the assumption that what is true in our minds is true in the world. Studying this human confusion can reveal much about the brain's operation, but little about the nature of the human-independent external world.

The paradox had been discussed by other ancient philosophers such as Heraclitus and Plato prior to Plutarch's writings, [8] and more recently by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Several variants are known, including the grandfather's axe , which has had both head and handle replaced, and the similar idea " Trigger's Broom ".

This particular version of the paradox was first introduced in Greek legend as reported by the historian, biographer, and essayist Plutarch :.

The ship wherein Theseus and the youth of Athens returned from Crete had thirty oars, and was preserved by the Athenians down even to the time of Demetrius Phalereus , for they took away the old planks as they decayed, putting in new and stronger timber in their places, insomuch that this ship became a standing example among the philosophers, for the logical question of things that grow; one side holding that the ship remained the same, and the other contending that it was not the same.

Plutarch thus questions whether the ship would remain the same if it were entirely replaced, piece by piece. Centuries later, the philosopher Thomas Hobbes introduced a further puzzle, wondering what would happen if the original planks were gathered up after they were replaced, and used to build a second ship. In philosophy of mind , the ship is replaced by a person whose identity over time is called into question.

In both philosophy of law and practical law , the paradox appears when the ownership of an object or of the rights to its name are disagreed in court. For example, groups of people such as companies, sports teams, and musical bands may all change their parts and see their old members re-form into rivals, leading to legal actions between the old and new entities.

Also, texts and computer programs may be edited gradually but so heavily that none of the original remains, posing the legal question of whether the owners of the original have any claim on the result. In ontological engineering such as the design of practical databases and AI systems, the paradox appears regularly when data objects change over time. A literal example of a Ship of Theseus is DSV Alvin , a submarine that has retained its identity despite all of its components being replaced at least once.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the thought experiment. For the Indian film, see Ship of Theseus film. Philosophical question. Main article: Perdurantism. Main article: Conceptualism. Main article: List of Ship of Theseus examples. Interchangeable parts Mereological essentialism Haecceity Anatta — a similar concept in Buddhist philosophy Milinda Panha Bundle theory Neurathian bootstrap. Marc Retrieved Rorty [ed. Reprinted in his Philosophical Papers I.

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